Summary: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. A leading cause of infertility, endometriosis has a prevalence of 0.5–5% in fertile and 25–40% in infertile women. The optimal choice of management for endometriosis-associated infertility remains obscure. Removal or suppression of endometrial deposits by medical or surgical means constitutes the basis of endometriosis management. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination is recommended in early-stage and surgically corrected endometriosis when pelvic anatomy is normal. In advanced cases, in vitro fertilization is a treatment of choice, and its success may be augmented with prolonged gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment.